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Unlike other bombing raids, the goal for this raid had not been a military installation but rather an entire city. The atomic bomb that exploded over Hiroshima killed civilian women and children in addition to soldiers.
Portions of the text for this page were adapted from, and portions were taken directly from the Office of History and Heritage Resources publication: F. G. Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb (DOE/MA-0001; Washington: History Division, Department of Energy, January 1999) , 53-54. Also used was the report on "The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki" in the official Manhattan District History , produced by the War Department in 1947 at the direction of Leslie Groves , especially pages 1-19; the "Atomic Bombings" document is available in the University Publications of America (UPA) microfilm collection, Manhattan Project: Official History and Documents (Washington: 1977), reel #1/12; the report itself is a government document. For an account of the mission, see the "Eye Witness Account: Atomic Bomb Mission Over Nagasaki" press release, written by William L. Laurence of the New York Times and released on September 9, 1945; this is also available on reel #1/12 of the UPA Manhattan Project microfilm collection. Summaries of Hiroshima and Nagasaki casualty rates and damage estimates appear in Leslie R. Groves, Now It Can Be Told (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), 319, 329-330, 346, and Vincent C. Jones, Manhattan: The Army and the Atomic Bomb , United States Army in World War II (Washington: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1988), 545-548. For a description of Kokura Arsenal and interesting reflections on its postwar fate, see "Chapter 4: Kokura" of Paul Saffo's essay "The Road from Trinity: Reflections on the Atom Bomb"; this is available on Paul Saffo's web site at http:///essays/the-road-from-trinity-reflections-on-the-atom-bomb/ . The map showing the flight paths for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki missions is reproduced from Gosling, Making the Atomic Bomb , 52. The photographs of Fat Man and of the general devastation at Nagasaki are courtesy the . Army Corps of Engineers (via the National Archives (NARA) ). The photograph of the destruction at the Mitsubishi facility north of ground zero is courtesy the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; the photograph was taken by Robert Serber and is reprinted in Rachel Fermi and Esther Samra, Picturing the Bomb: Photographs from the Secret World of the Manhattan Project (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1995), 190. The photograph of the mother and child is courtesy the Department of Energy (via NARA). The photograph of the bodies in the trench is reprinted from Vincent C. Jones, Manhattan: The Army and the Atomic Bomb , United States Army in World War II (Washington: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1988), 548.
The following 33 files are in this category, out of 33 total.
After being relieved from the Manhattan Project, Groves was promoted to the status of Temporary Lieutenant General in January 1948. However, he took voluntary retirement after just a month and served as the vice president of the Sperry Rand Corporation and later, as president of the West Point alumni association. He died on July 13, 1970.