In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes. Many taxonomic groups of animals (mostly invertebrates) do not have separate sexes.
@maura_jortner oh, yay! I'm reading essays on the ethics if Sherlock Holmes in " A Scandal in Bohemia," but I'll be dreaming Monster Book!
Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex received conflicting reviews. Some faulted Dreger's argument that the classification system of hermaphrodites gave rise to a homosexual identity. Despite this criticism, the book offers a historical account of hermaphroditism with regard to the medical and scientific communities in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, and it describes how beliefs generated in that time influenced later views of sex, gender and sexuality.
Once mutant strains have been obtained and shown to be true-breeding, ., give mutant individuals in the next generation, they can be mapped using classical genetic tools ( Brenner 1974 ). Originally, mapping involved linkage crosses to identify the chromosome containing the mutation followed by multiple three-factor crosses to refine its map position. Once a map position had been determined, the mutated gene could be identified molecularly (using the physical map of overlapping genomic clones) by transformation rescue of the mutant phenotype by the wild-type gene ( Evans 2006 ; Merritt et al. 2010 ; Schweinsberg and Grant 2013 ). Transformation requires injection of DNA into the syncytial (multi-nucleated) gonad, where it is incorporated into the nucleus of some developing gametes ( Mello and Fire 1995 ). Transposon-tagged mutations were also used to isolate the DNA of the mutated gene, allowing for its molecular identification ( ., Greenwald 1985 ). The entire process of cloning a gene could easily take a year.
Even today, the goal of many leading teams treating intersex is still to make intersex disappear . Pediatric endocrinologist Maria New, recommends Dexamethasone to women who may be carrying an XX child with CAH ; these treatments do not alleviate CAH, it only makes the child’s clitoris appear smaller (and, clinicians hope, makes the child less likely to grow up lesbian). Abortion is routinely offered to women who are likely pregnant with children with intersex conditions, including Klinefelter’s Syndrome. Many surgeons maintain the paternalistic attitude that they should remove healthy testes from babies with AIS to “spare them the trauma later,” thereby denying these girls the opportunity to have a natural puberty and to come to know themselves, in a sexual way, free from surgical scars. Many endocrinologists press unnecessary—sometimes devestating—“normalizing” hormone treatments on patients who are otherwise healthy. Finally, doctors continue constructing vaginas in infants and young children, despite arguments by many medical professionals that early vaginoplasties fail too often and are unnecessary to begin with.