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The Kouroukan Fouga divided the Mali Empire into ruling clans (lineages) that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara . However, the charter made Mali more similar to a constitutional monarchy than a democratic republic . A little closer to modern democracy were the Cossack republics of Ukraine in the 16th and 17th centuries: Cossack Hetmanate and Zaporizhian Sich . The highest post – the Hetman – was elected by the representatives from the country's districts.
SHABIA MANTOO : Well, look, to be honest, I mean, those are decisions made by each of the parties responsible for leading that response. Now, with us at UNHCR , we’re concerned primarily with displacement and also the issues relating to displaced persons. In terms of the health response, that’s coordinated by humanitarian partners and national health authorities, but that’s perhaps something that I wouldn’t be best to speak to.
There actually isn't a campaign underway in the UK. The last election took place three months ago and ended with two surprises: The Tories, under Prime Minister Theresa May, lost their absolute majority, and the Labour Party, which had been written off, exhumed itself. Since then, though, Jeremy Corbyn has simply carried on in campaign mode. He wants to be ready for the next election, which could happen soon if May stumbles.