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In Northern Europe, the new technology of the printing press was widely used to publish many arguments, including some that disagreed widely with contemporary ideas of nature. René Descartes and Francis Bacon published philosophical arguments in favor of a new type of non-Aristotelian science. Descartes emphasized individual thought and argued that mathematics rather than geometry should be used in order to study nature. Bacon emphasized the importance of experiment over contemplation. Bacon further questioned the Aristotelian concepts of formal cause and final cause, and promoted the idea that science should study the laws of "simple" natures, such as heat, rather than assuming that there is any specific nature, or " formal cause ," of each complex type of thing. This new modern science began to see itself as describing " laws of nature ". This updated approach to studies in nature was seen as mechanistic . Bacon also argued that science should aim for the first time at practical inventions for the improvement of all human life.
ESF staff worked with professionalism for the evaluation of projects in the frame of University of Torino’s ‘2020 Researchers: Train2Move’ programme, providing an efficient service. Our staff was pleased to have had the opportunity to collaborate with a highly performing team that satisfied our expectations.
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